Apa Format Bibliography Citing Websites

Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2017-11-15 10:40:43

Please note: There are no spaces used with brackets in APA. When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Please note, too, that the OWL still includes information about print sources and databases for those still working with these sources.

Article From an Online Periodical

Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from
http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Please note: In August of 2011 the formatting recommendations for DOIs changed. DOIs are now rendered as an alpha-numeric string which acts as an active link. According to The APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th edition, you should use the DOI format which the article appears with. So, if it is using the older numeric string, use that as the DOI. If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI. The Purdue OWL maintains examples of citations using both DOI styles.

Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many-but not all-publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document. 

Note that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOI's from print publications or ones that go to dead links with CrossRef.org's "DOI Resolver," which is displayed in a central location on their home page.

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://doi.org/10.0000/0000

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Wooldridge, M.B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211-218. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2012.05.005

Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page. Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

Article from a Database

Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time (p. 192). However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.

When referencing a print article obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.

If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL. You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc. to find the URL.

For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-192 of the Publication Manual.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from
http://www.fakeexamplehomepage.com/full/url/

Abstract

If you only cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online abstract as any other online citations, adding "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58.

Hendricks, J., Applebaum, R., & Kunkel, S. (2010). A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50(3), 284-293. Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database. (Accession No. 50360869)

Newspaper Article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from
http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/psychiatry-handbook-linked-to-drug-industry/?_r=0

Electronic Books

Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name. For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and version of e-book you are referencing (e.g., "[Kindle DX version]"). If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference.

 

De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html


Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. Available from http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=1-9780931686108-0

Kindle Books

To cite Kindle (or other e-book formats) you must include the following information: The author, date of publication, title, e-book version, and either the Digital Object Identifer (DOI) number, or the place where you downloaded the book. Please note that the DOI/place of download is used in-place of publisher information. 

 

Here’s an example:

 

Stoker, B. (1897). Dracula [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com

Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server version 1.3 documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from http://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough and G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the Web site.

Online Book Reviews

Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write "Review of the book" and give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words "Retrieved from," if the review is freely available to anyone. If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write "Available from" and provide the information where the review can be purchased.

Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us]. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/books/review/Zachareck
-t.html?pagewanted=2

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce's critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self]. Modern Fiction Studies, 50(1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE Web site: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies/toc/mfs52.1.html

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors' names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism

Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in Prisons: A Select Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/pdf/intactiv/hiv-vih-aids-sida-prison-carceral_e.pdf

Data Sets

Point readers to raw data by providing a Web address (use "Retrieved from") or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use "Available from").

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from http://lasp.colorado.edu/cgi-bin/ion-p?page=input_data_for_ spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets (e.g. [Interview transcript, Interview audio file]):

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project Web site: http:// www11.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/oral_histories.htm

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/
index.html

Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://siri.uvm.edu/ppt/40hrenv/index.html

Nonperiodical Web Document or Report

List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information; don't be lazy. If there is a page like http://www.somesite.com/somepage.htm, and somepage.htm doesn't have the information you're looking for, move up the URL to http://www.somesite.com/):

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address

 

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page, provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. Also, if there isn't a date available for the document use (n.d.) for no date.

To cite a YouTube video, the APA recommends following the above format. 

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry [computer software]. New York: Worth.

Software that is downloaded from a Web site should provide the software’s version and year when available.

Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software (Version 2.1) [Software]. Available from http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft/

E-mail

E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.g. "Message posted to..., archived at...").

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted to http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.html

Blog (Weblog) and Video Blog Post

Include the title of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name.

J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.spring.org.uk/the1sttransport

 

Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqM90eQi5-M

Wikis

Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects that cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.

OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved April 29, 2011 from the OLPC Wiki: http://wiki.laptop. org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T., & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast. Podcast retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm

Video Podcasts

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from http://www.adveeducation.com

For more help with citing electronic sources, please use these links:

BibMe’s Free APA Format Guide & Generator

What is APA?

APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on psychology. They are responsible for creating this specific citation style. The APA is not associated with this guide, but all of the information here provides guidance to using their style.

What is APA Citing?

This citation style is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavioral and social sciences, not just psychology. There are other citation formats and styles such as MLA and Chicago, but this one is most popular in the science fields.

Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in its 6th edition. It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and how to properly cite sources. This webpage, created solely by BibMe to help students and researchers, focuses on how to create APA citations*. For more information, please consult the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed.).

We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the authors of the work you used to help you with your own research. When you use another person’s information to help you with your project, it is important to acknowledge that individual or group. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work. Also, read up on how to be careful of plagiarism.

What does it look like?

There are two types of citations. In-text citations are found in the body of the project and are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the full citations of all sources used in a project.

Depending on the types of sources you used for your project, the structure for each citation may look different. There is a certain format, or structure, for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and so on. Scroll down to find the appropriate citation structure for your sources.

Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of in-text citations and reference citations.

To learn more about APA referencing, including the American Psychological Association's blog, formatting questions, & referencing explanations, click on this link for further reading on the style. To learn more about BibMe, see the section below titled, “Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or APA Bibliography.”

Citing Basics

In-Text Citations Overview:

When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in the body of your project, immediately following it.

In-text citations may look something like this:

"Direct quote" or paraphrase (Author’s last name, Year, page number).

See the section below titled, “In-Text or Parenthetical Citations,” for a full explanation and instructions.

Full Citations Overview

Each source used to help with the gathering of information for your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project.

The structure for each citation is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see examples of some common source formats.

Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order:

Author’s Last name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Date published). Title of source. Retrieved from URL

To determine the exact format for your full citations, scroll down to the section titled, “Common Examples.”

If you’re looking for an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s free APA citation machine, which automatically formats your citations quickly and easily.

Citation Components

How to Structure Authors

Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. End this information with a period.

Example:

Kirschenbaum, M. A.

In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA citation builder, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Our free citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them.

If your reference list has multiple authors with the same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets.

Example:

Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March. New York, NY: Viking.

Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.

When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title followed by the year in parentheses.

Editors:

When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books.

How to Structure Publication Dates:

Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. For periodicals, include the month and day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses, which stands for no date.

How to Structure the Title:

For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. End it with a period.

Example:

Gone with the wind.

For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the title or place it in quotation marks. End it with a period.

Example:

The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview.

For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the title in capitalization form, with each important word starting with a capital letter.

Example:

The Boston Globe

If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description in brackets directly after the title. Only capitalize the first letter.

Example:

New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht

How to Structure Publication Information

For books and sources that are not periodicals, give the city and state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location.

Example:

Philadelphia, PA:

Rotterdam, Netherlands:

For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals, place the volume number after the title. Italicize this information. Place the issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it. Afterwards, include page numbers.

Example:

Journal of Education for Library and Information Science,57(1), 79-82.

If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the page numbers.

How to Structure the Publisher:

The names of publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals.

For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period.

Example:

Little Brown and Company would be placed in the citation as: Little Brown.

Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as: Oxford University Press.

How to Structure Online sources

For sources found online:

  • include the URL at the end of the citation
  • format it as: Retrieved from URL
  • do not place a period after the URL

If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to it. This stands for Direct Object Identifier. A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a unique string of numbers and letters assigned by a registration agency. The DOI is used to identify and provide a permanent link to its location on the internet. The DOI is assigned when an article is published and made electronically. If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx. The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to type in the DOI number.

Example:

Lobo, F. (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the world’s fastest SD card. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO

Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016). Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and Open Oregon State. Open Praxis,8(2), 123-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.8.2.290

Citations and Examples

Citations for Print Books

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of book. Location of publisher: Publisher.

Example:

Finney, J. (1970). Time and again. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Looking for an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates citations quickly and easily.

Notes: When citing a book, keep in mind:

  • Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles, as well as the first letter of any proper nouns.
  • The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be stated and italicized.

Citing an E-book from an E-reader

E-book is short for “electronic book.” It is a digital version of a book that can be read on a computer, e-reader (Kindle, Nook, etc.), or other electronic devices.

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of work [E-reader version]. http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx or Retrieved from URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx is used when a source has a DOI number. If the e-book you’re citing has a DOI number, use it in the citation. DOIs are preferred over URLs.

Example:

Eggers, D. (2008). The circle [Kindle version]. Retrieved from www.amazon.com

Citing an E-book found in a Database and Online

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of work [E-reader version]. http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL

When citing an online book or e-book, keep in mind:

  • A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content to its location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to use it when creating a citation. In place of the x’s in the doi format, place the 10 digit DOI number.
  • Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation.

Example:

Sayre, R. K., Devercelli, A. E., Neuman, M. J., & Wodon, Q. (2015). Investment in early childhood development: Review of the world bank’s recent experience. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0403-8

Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

Chapter author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of chapter. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of book (p. x or pp. x-x). Location: Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx or Retrieved from URL

Example:

Longacre, W. A., & Ayres, J. E. (1968). Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S. R. Binford & L. R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C&lpg=PP1&dq=archeology&pg=PR9#v=onepage&q=archeology&f=false

Citations for Edited Books

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book. Location: Publisher.

Example:

Gupta, R. (Ed.). (2003). Remote sensing geology. Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Citations for Websites

Citing a general website article with an author:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day published). Title of article or page. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Retrieved from http://grantland.com/the-triangle/the-tale-of-two-flaccos/

Citing a general website article without an author:

Article title. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Retrieved from URL

Example:

Teen posed as doctor at West Palm Beach hospital: Police. (2015, January 16). Retrieved from http://www.nbcmiami.com/news/local/Teen-Posed-as-Doctor-at-West-Palm-Beach-Hospital-Police-288810831.html

Citations for Journal Articles found in Print:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.

Example:

Nevin, A. (1990). The changing of teacher education special education. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children,13(3-4), 147-148.

Citations for Journal Articles found Online

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxx/xxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL

Example:

Spreer, P., & Rauschnabel, P. A. (2016). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 36(3), 240-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100

Notes: When creating your online journal article citation, keep in mind:

  • This citation style does NOT require you to include the date of access/retrieval date or database information for electronic sources.
  • You can use the URL of the journal homepage if there is no DOI assigned and the reference was retrieved online.
  • A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content to its location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to use it when creating a citation. All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and are separated by a slash. Don’t forget, BibMe’s free APA generator, which is an APA citation maker, is simple to use!

Citations for a Newspaper Article in Print

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. xx-xx.

Example:

Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, p. D5.

Notes: When creating your newspaper citation, keep in mind:

  • Begin page numbers with p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages).
  • Even if the article appears on non-consecutive pages, include all page numbers, and use a comma to separate them. Example: pp. C2, C5, C7-C9.

Citations for Newspapers found Online

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from URL of newspaper’s homepage

Example:

Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). Electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon. The New York Times, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Notes: When citing a newspaper, keep in mind:

  • This style does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. If you discovered a newspaper article via an online database, that information is NOT required for the citation either.
  • Multiple lines: If the URL runs onto a second line, only break URL before punctuation (except for http://).

Citations for Magazines

Citing a magazine article in print:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month of publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), page range.

Example:

Tumulty, K. (2006, April). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15), 3-40.

Notes: When citing a magazine, keep in mind:

  • You can find the volume number with the other publication information of the magazine.
  • You can typically find page numbers at the bottom corners of a magazine article.
  • If you cannot locate an issue number, simply don’t include it in the citation.

Citing a magazine article found online:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year, Month of publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue). Retrieved from URL

Example:

Tumulty, K. (2006, April). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15). Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1179361,00.html

Notes: When creating an online magazine citation, keep in mind:

*The volume and issue number aren’t always on the same page as the article. Check out the other parts of the website before leaving it out of the citation.

Citations for Films

Producer’s Last name, F. M. (Producer), & Director’s Last name, F. M. (Director). (Release Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Example:

Bender, L. (Producer), & Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion picture]. United States: Miramax.

Citations for Films & Videos from YouTube

Person who posted the video’s Last name, F. M. [User name]. (Year, Month Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

If the name of the individual who posted the YouTube video is not available, begin the citation with the user name and do not place this information in brackets.

Smith, R. [Rick Smith] (2013, September 20). Favre to Moss! [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOP_L6hBjn8

Citations for Photographs

Citing a photograph found in a publication or museum:

Photographer’s Last name, F. M. (Photographer). (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. City, State of Publication or Museum: Publisher/Museum.

Example:

Roege, W. J. (Photographer). (1938). St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Fifth Avenue from 50th St to 51st Street [Photograph]. New York, NY: New York Historical Society.

Citing a photograph retrieved online:

Photographer, A. (Photographer). (Year, Month Day of Publication). Title of photograph [Digital image]. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Ferraro, A. (Photographer). (2014, April 28). Liberty enlightening the world [Digital image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/afer92/14278571753/in/set-72157644617030616

Citations for TV/Radio Broadcasts

Writer, F. M. (Writer), & Director, F. M. (Director). (Year of Airing). Episode title [Television series episode]. In F. M. Executive Producer’s Last name (Executive Producer), TV series name. City, State of original channel: Channel.

Kand, K. (Writer), & Fryman, P. (Director). (2006). Slap bet [Television series episode]. In C. Bays (Executive Producer), How I met your mother, Los Angeles, CA: CBS.

TV/Radio Broadcasts found Online:

Writer, F. M. (Writer), & Director, F. M. (Director). (Year of Airing). Episode title [Television series episode]. In F. M. Executive Producer’s Last name (Executive Producer), TV series name. Retrieved from URL

Kand, K. (Writer), & Fryman, P. (Director). (2006). Slap bet [Television series episode]. In C. Bays (Executive Producer), How I met your mother. Retrieved from https://www.hulu.com/watch/1134858#i0,p30,d0

Note: When citing a TV show or episode, keep in mind:

*IMDB is a great resource for finding the information needed for your citation (Director, Writer, Executive Producer, etc.) This information can also be found in the opening and closing credits of the show.

Citations for Interviews:

A personal interview should NOT be included in a reference list. They are not considered recoverable data (they cannot be found by a researcher). You should reference personal interviews as in-text citations instead.

Example:

(J. Doe, personal communication, December 12, 2004)

Citations for Encyclopedia Entries

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Publication Year). Entry title. In F. M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (pp. xx-xx). City, State abbreviation or Country: Publisher.

Example:

Kammen, C., & Wilson, A. H. (2012). Monuments. Encyclopedia of local history. (pp. 363-364). Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

How to Reference a Lecture

This style of reference would be used if you were citing a set of notes from a lecture (e.g. PowerPoint or Google slides provided by your instructor).

Citing online lecture notes or presentation slides:

Author’s Last name, F. M. (Publication year). Name or title of lecture [Lectures notes or PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Saito, T. (2012). Technology and me: A personal timeline of educational technology [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/Bclari25/educational-technology-ppt

Tip: If you want to cite information from your own personal notes from a lecture, this is considered personal communication. It is considered personal communication since the lecture notes may not be available online for others outside of the class to access. Refer to it only in the body of your essay or project. You can follow the style guide for personal communication available in the Interview section.

In-Text and Parenthetical Citations

What is an In-Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation?

The purpose of in-text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source. Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased in your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in-text citation directly following it. You also need to include the full citation for the source in the reference list, which is usually the last item in a project.

In-Text Citations for Direct Quotes

The in-text citation is found immediately following the direct quote. It should include the page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves.

Example:

Buck needed to adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25).

In-Text Citations for Paraphrased Information:

When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information.

Example:

At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and available in mass quantities in Egypt. This posed a problem for the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001).

How to Format In-Text and Parenthetical Citations

After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the last name of the author, add a comma, and then the year the source was published. If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Close the parentheses and add a period afterwards.

If the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of information.

Example:

Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82).

If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation.

If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in-text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al.

Example:

1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, & Witchell, 2015)

2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al. 2015)

If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in the first citation and follow it with et al. Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote).

1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017)

2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017)

If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation. In any in-text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and understandable.

Example:

1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017)

2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017)

Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe creates your parenthetical citations quickly and easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator.

Your Reference List

The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are all of the sources you used to gather research and other information.

It is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project.

All citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.

If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by the year of publication.

Example:

Thompson, H. S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream. New York, NY: Random House.

Thompson, H. S. (1998). The rum diary. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

Example:

Dr. Seuss. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House.

Dr. Seuss. (1958). Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House.

If a source does not have an author, place the source in alphabetical order by the first main word of the title.

Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information.

How to Format Your Paper in APA:

Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines:

In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and headings. Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard.

Place the pages in the following order:

  1. Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1)
  2. Abstract page (page 2)
  3. Text or body of research paper (start on page 3)
  4. Reference List
  5. Page for tables (if necessary)
  6. Page for figures (if necessary)
  7. Appendices page (if necessary)

Page numbers: The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…).

What is a running head?

In an APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the running head in the top left corner of your project and place it in capital letters.

On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head

Title page example:

  • Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS

For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head.

Example of subsequent pages:

Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you!

If you’re looking for an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe.

Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography

Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe can help you generate your citations; simply enter a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information.

See more across the site here and if you’d like to cite your sources in MLA format, check out BibMe’s MLA page. Other citation styles are available as well.

Background Information and History of APA:

The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by scholars from a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research.

Since its inception, the Style Manual has been updated numerous times and it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating citations for electronic resources.

Today, there are close to 118,000 members. There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology.

*Disclaimer: The American Psychological Association was not involved in the making of this guide.

Helpful Tips for Your Citation

 

Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles.

 

If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well.

 

Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!

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