Sinclair Macleod Bibliography Creator

Sir Frederick Grant BantingKBEMCFRSFRSC[1] (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter, and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential.[2]

In 1923 Banting and John James Rickard Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine.[3] Banting shared the award money with his colleague, Dr. Charles Best. As of November 2016[update], Banting, who received the Nobel Prize at age 32, remains the youngest Nobel laureate in the area of Physiology/Medicine.[4] In 1923 the Government of Canada granted Banting a lifetime annuity to continue his work. In 1934 he was knighted by King George V.

Early years[edit]

Frederick Banting was born on November 14, 1891, in a farm house near Alliston, Ontario.[5] The youngest of five children of William Thompson Banting and Margaret Grant,[6] he attended public high schools in Alliston. In 1910, he started at Victoria College, part of the University of Toronto, in the General Arts program. After failing his first year, he petitioned to join the medical program in 1912 and was accepted. He began medical school in September 1912.[7]:28–29

In 1914, he attempted to enter the army on August 5, and then again in October, but was refused due to poor eyesight.[7]:33–34 Banting successfully joined the army in 1915 and spent the summer training before returning to school. His class was fast-tracked to get more doctors into the war and so he graduated in December 1916 and reported for military duty the next day.[7]:36–37 He was wounded at the Battle of Cambrai in 1918. Despite his injuries, he helped other wounded men for sixteen hours, until another doctor told him to stop. He was awarded the Military Cross in 1919, for heroism.[8]

Banting returned to Canada after the war and went to Toronto to complete his surgical training.[7]:44 He studied orthopedic medicine and, in 1919–1920, was Resident Surgeon at The Hospital for Sick Children. Banting was unable to gain a place on the hospital staff and so he decided to move to London, Ontario to set up a medical practice. From July 1920 to May 1921, he continued his general practice, while teaching orthopedics and anthropology part-time at the University of Western Ontario in London because his medical practice had not been particularly successful.[7]:48 From 1921 to 1922 he lectured in pharmacology at the University of Toronto. He received his M.D. degree in 1922, and was also awarded a gold medal.[8]

Medical research[edit]

Isolation of insulin[edit]

An article he read about the pancreas piqued Banting's interest in diabetes. Banting had to give a talk on the pancreas to one of his classes at the University of Western Ontario on November 1, 1920, and he was therefore reading reports that other scientists had written.[7]:51–52 Research by GermanpathologistBernhard Naunyn, Oskar Minkowski, American physician and pathologist Eugene Lindsay Opie, EnglishphysiologistEdward Albert Sharpey-Schafer, and others suggested that diabetes resulted from a lack of a protein hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Schafer had named this putative hormone "insulin". Insulin was thought to control the metabolism of sugar; its lack led to an increase of sugar in the blood which was then excreted in urine. Attempts to extract insulin from ground-up pancreas cells were unsuccessful, likely because of the destruction of the insulin by the proteolysisenzyme of the pancreas. The challenge was to find a way to extract insulin from the pancreas prior to it being destroyed.[8]

Moses Barron published an article in 1920 which described experimental closure of the pancreatic duct by ligature; this further influenced Banting's thinking. The procedure caused deterioration of the cells of the pancreas that secrete trypsin which breaks down insulin, but it left the islets of Langerhans intact. Banting realized that this procedure would destroy the trypsin-secreting cells but not the insulin. Once the trypsin-secreting cells had died, insulin could be extracted from the islets of Langerhans. Banting discussed this approach with J. J. R. Macleod, Professor of Physiology at the University of Toronto. Macleod provided experimental facilities and the assistance of one of his students, Dr. Charles Best. Banting and Best, with the assistance of biochemist James Collip, began the production of insulin by this means.[8]

As the experiments proceeded, the required quantities could no longer be obtained by performing surgery on living dogs. On November 16, 1921, Banting hit upon the idea of obtaining insulin from the fetal pancreas. He removed the pancreases from fetal calves at a William Davies slaughterhouse and found the extracts to be just as potent as those extracted from the dog pancreases. Pork and beef would remain the primary commercial sources of insulin until they were replaced by genetically-engineered bacteria in the late 20th century. In spring of 1922, Banting established a private practice in Toronto and began to treat diabetic patients, including Elizabeth Hughes Gossett, daughter of then U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes.[9]

Banting and Macleod were jointly awarded the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Banting split his half of the Prize money with Best, and Macleod split the other half of the Prize money with James Collip.[9]

After insulin[edit]

Banting was appointed Senior Demonstrator in Medicine at the University of Toronto in 1922. The following year he was elected to the new Banting and Best Chair of Medical Research, endowed by the Legislature of the Province of Ontario. He also served as Honorary Consulting Physician to the Toronto General, the Hospital for Sick Children, and the Toronto Western Hospital. At the Banting and Best Institute, he focused his research on silicosis, cancer, and the mechanisms of drowning.

In 1938, Banting's interest in aviation medicine resulted in his participation with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in research concerning the physiological problems encountered by pilots operating high-altitude combat aircraft. Banting headed the RCAF's Number 1 Clinical Investigation Unit (CIU), which was housed in a secret facility on the grounds of the former Eglinton Hunt Club in Toronto.[10]

During the Second World War he investigated the problems of aviators, such as "blackout" (syncope).[8] He also helped Wilbur Franks with the invention of the G-suit to stop pilots from blacking out when they were subjected to g-forces while turning or diving.[7]:255 Another of Banting's projects during the Second World War involved using and treating mustard gas burns. Banting even tested the gas and antidotes on himself to see if they were effective.[7]:256

Personal life[edit]

Banting developed an interest in painting beginning around 1921 while he was in London, Ontario. Some of his first pieces were done on the back of the cardboard in which his shirts were packed by the dry-cleaners.[7]:51 He became friends with The Group of Seven artists A. Y. Jackson and Lawren Harris, sharing their love of the rugged Canadian landscape. In 1927 he made a sketching trip with Jackson to the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. Later that year they traveled to RCMP outposts in the Arctic on the Canadian Government supply ship Beothic. The sketches, done both in oils on birch panels and in pen and ink, were named after the places he visited: Craig Harbour, Ellesmere Island; Pond Inlet, Baylot Island; Eskimo tents at Etach; others were untitled. Jackson and Banting also made painting expeditions to Great Slave Lake, Walsh Lake (Northwest Territories), Georgian Bay, French River and the Sudbury District.[11]

Banting married twice. His first marriage was to Marion Robertson in 1924; they had one child, William (born 1928). They divorced in 1932 and Banting married Henrietta Ball in 1937.[8]

In February 1941, Banting died of wounds and exposure following the crash of a Lockheed L-14 Super Electra/Hudson in which he was a passenger, in Musgrave Harbour, Newfoundland. After departing from Gander, Newfoundland, both of the plane's engines failed.[12] The navigator and co-pilot died instantly, but Banting and the pilot, Captain Joseph Mackey, survived the initial impact. According to Mackey, the sole survivor, Banting died from his injuries the next day.[13] Banting was en route to England to conduct operational tests on the Franks flying suit developed by his colleague Wilbur Franks.[14]

Banting and his wife are buried at Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto.[15]


In 1994 Banting was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. In 2004, he was nominated as one of the top 10 "Greatest Canadians" by viewers of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. When the final votes were counted, Banting finished fourth behind Tommy Douglas, Terry Fox and Pierre Trudeau.


Banting's namesake, the Banting Research Foundation, was created in 1925 and provides funding to support health and biomedical research in Canada.[16]

Banting's name is immortalised in the yearly Banting Lectures, given by an expert in diabetes, and by the creation of the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research of the University of Toronto; Sir Frederick G Banting Research Centre located on Sir Frederick Banting Driveway in the Tunney's Pasture complex, Ottawa, ON;[17]Banting Memorial High School in Alliston, ON; Sir Frederick Banting Secondary School in London, ON; Sir Frederick Banting Alternative Program Site in Ottawa, ON; Frederick Banting Elementary School in Montréal-Nord QC and École Banting Middle School in Coquitlam, BC.

The "Major Sir Frederick Banting, MC, RCAMC Award for Military Health Research", sponsored by the True Patriot Love Foundation, is awarded annually by the Surgeon General to the researcher whose work presented at the annual Military and Veterans Health Research Forum is deemed to contribute most to military health. It was first awarded in 2011 in the presence of several Banting descendants.[18][19]

The "Canadian Forces Major Sir Frederick Banting Term Chair in Military Trauma Research" at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre was established in 2012. The first Chair holder is Colonel Homer Tien, Medical Director of Sunnybrook's Tory Regional Trauma Centre and Senior Specialist and Trauma Adviser to the Surgeon General.[20][21]

The Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship Program is administered by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. The fellowship provided up to two years of funding at $70,000 per year to researchers in health, natural sciences, engineering, social sciences and humanities. [22][23]


Banting House, his former home located in London, Ontario, was declared a National Historic Site of Canada in 1997.[24][25] The Banting Interpretation Centre in Musgrave Harbour, Newfoundland and Labrador is a museum named after him which focuses on the circumstances surrounding the 1941 plane crash which claimed his life. The crater Banting on the Moon is also named after him for his contributions to medicine.

During the voting for "Greatest Canadians" in late 2003, controversy rose over the future use of the Banting family farm in New Tecumseth which had been left to the Ontario Historical Society by Banting's late nephew, Edward, in 1998. The dispute centred on the future use of the 40 ha (100 acre) property and its buildings. In a year-long negotiation, assisted by a provincially appointed facilitator, the Town of New Tecumseth offered $1 million to the Ontario Historical Society (OHS). The town intended to turn the property over to the Sir Frederick Banting Legacy Foundation for preservation of the property and buildings, and the Legacy Foundation planned to erect a Camp for Diabetic Youths. The day after the November 22, 2006, deadline for the OHS to sign the agreement, the OHS announced that it had sold the property for housing development to Solmar Development for more than $2 million.[26]

The Town of New Tecumseth announced it would designate the property under the Ontario Heritage Act. This would prevent its commercial development and obligate the owner to maintain it properly. OHS objected. The Ontario Conservation Review Board heard arguments for and against designation in September 2007 and recommended designation of the entire property in October. The Town officially passed the designation by-law on November 12, 2007.[27]

Banting's artwork has gained attention in the art community; A painting of his called "St. Tîte des Cap" sold for Can$30,000 including buyer's premium at a Canadian art auction in Toronto.[28]

Portrayals in film[edit]

He and his insulin discovery have also been depicted in various media formats, including comic books, the biography by Michael Bliss, and on television. The National Film Board of Canada produced a short film in 1958, The Quest, about his initial insulin experiments on dogs.[29] The 1988 television movie Glory Enough for All depicted the search for insulin by Banting and Best, with R. H. Thomson starring as Banting. Banting is also portrayed by Jason Priestley boarding his fatal flight in the 2006 historical drama Above and Beyond.

Awards and honours[edit]

Prior to the award of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1923—which he shared with Macleod—he received the Reeve Prize of the University of Toronto (1922). In 1923, the Canadian Parliament granted him a Life Annuity of $7,500. In 1928 Banting gave the Cameron Lecture in Edinburgh. He was a member of numerous medical academies and societies in Canada and abroad, including the British and American Physiological Societies, and the American Pharmacological Society. In 1934 he was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) and became an active Vice-President of the Diabetic Association (now Diabetes UK). In May, 1935 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.[1][30][31] In 2004, Banting was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Flame of Hope[edit]

A "Flame of Hope" was lit by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother[32] in 1989 as a tribute to Dr. Frederick Grant Banting and all the people that have lost their lives to diabetes. The flame will remain lit until there is a cure for diabetes.[33] When a cure is found, the flame will be extinguished by the researchers who discover the cure. The flame is located at Sir Frederick Banting Square in London, Ontario, Canada beside the Banting House National Historic Site of Canada.[32][34]

Time capsule[edit]

A time capsule was buried in the Sir Frederick Banting Square in 1991 to honour the 100th anniversary of Sir Frederick Banting's birth. It was buried by the International Diabetes Federation Youth Representatives and Governor General of CanadaRay Hnatyshyn. It will be exhumed if a cure for diabetes is found.[35]

Honorary degrees[edit]

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Sir Frederick Banting received honorary degrees from several Universities:

Honorific eponyms[edit]



  1. ^ abBest, C. H. (November 1, 1942). "Frederick Grant Banting 1891–1941". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 4 (11): 20–26. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1942.0003. 
  2. ^"Frederick Grant Banting (1891–1941) Codiscoverer of Insulin". Journal of the American Medical Association. 198 (6): 660–61. 1966. doi:10.1001/jama.1966.03110190142041. 
  3. ^"Frederick G. Banting - Facts". Nobel Media AB. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  4. ^"Nobel Laureates by Age". Nobel Media AB. Retrieved April 3, 2016. 
  5. ^Levine, Israel E. (1959). The Discoverer of Insulin: Dr. Frederick G. Banting. Copp Clark Publishing Company. 
  6. ^"Frederick Grant Banting". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved April 4, 2016. 
  7. ^ abcdefghiBliss, Michael (1992) [1984]. Banting: A Biography. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7387-5. 
  8. ^ abcdef"Frederick G. Banting – Biography". Nobel Media AB. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  9. ^ abBliss, Michael (1982). The Discovery of Insulin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226058972. 
  10. ^Canadian Space Agency. Canada's Aerospace Medicine Pioneers – World War II Jump-Starts Aviation Medicine in Canada. Retrieved 2012-01-03. Archived October 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^MacDonald, Colin S. "Banting, F. G. (Frederick Grant), Sir". A Dictionary of Canadian Artists. 1. National Gallery of Canada. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. 
  12. ^"ASN Aircraft accident 20-FEB-1941 Lockheed Hudson Mark III T9449". September 19, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 
  13. ^Stevens, James (July 6, 2006). The Maw: Searching for the Hudson Bombers. Trafford. pp. 41–43. ISBN 978-1412063845. 
  14. ^National Defence Canada, Canadian Forces Health Services. History and Heritage. Chapter IV: Heroes and Honours. Retrieved 2012-01-03. Archived May 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^Mount Pleasant Cemetery Website
  16. ^"History". Banting Research Foundation. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 
  17. ^"Sir Frederick G. Banting Research Centre". Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 
  18. ^ Retrieved 2012-11-29.[dead link]
  19. ^ Retrieved 2012-11-29. Archived May 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Retrieved 2012-11-29. Archived May 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^"Military research chair awarded" (Press release). Sunnybrook Foundation. July 4, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2012. 
  22. ^"Banting Postdoctoral Fellowships". Government of Canada. Retrieved November 14, 2016. 
  23. ^"Banting Postdoctoral Fellowships Program". Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  24. ^"Banting House National Historic Site of Canada". Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. March 15, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  25. ^"Banting House National Historic Site of Canada". Parks Canada. November 23, 1997. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  26. ^Fletcher, K (June 5, 2007). "Sir Frederick Banting homestead sold to developer, family outraged"(PDF). Journal of the Canadian Medical Association (PDF). 176 (12): 1691–92. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070613. PMC 1877854. PMID 17548378. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  27. ^Banting, Peter M., Dr. (November 23, 2007). "The Banting Homestead is now protected!". The Global Gazette. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  28. ^"Auction Result". Ritchies. November 20, 2006. Archived from the original on November 28, 2007. 
  29. ^The Quest on YouTube
  30. ^"List of Fellows of the Royal Society 1660 – 2007"(PDF). Royal Society. July 2007. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  31. ^"Banting, Sir Frederick Grant". Plarr's Lives of the Fellows Online. Retrieved November 13, 2013. 
  32. ^ ab"Sir Frederick G. Banting Square". Canadian Diabetes Association. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  33. ^"Frederick Banting". Retrieved September 7, 2015. 
  34. ^Gini-Newman, Garfield; Aitken, Bob; Eaton, Diane; Holland, Dick; Montgomery, John; Riddock, Sonia (2000). Canada: A Nation Unfolding (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Ryerson School. 
  35. ^"History of Diabetes". Canadian Diabetes Association. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  36. ^"Honorary Degrees Awarded, 1881–present"(PDF). University of Western Ontario. p. 30. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  37. ^ abcdef"Banting, Frederick Grant, Sir, Papers"(PDF). Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  38. ^"Nobel Prize.Org". Retrieved November 14, 2016. 
  39. ^"McGill University Honorary Degree Recipients"(PDF). McGill University. Retrieved July 29, 2015. [permanent dead link]

Further reading[edit]

  • Banting, F. G.; Best, C. H. (2009). "The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine: Vol. VII St. Louis, February, 1922 No. 5". Nutrition Reviews. 45 (4): 55–57. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1987.tb07442.x. 
  • Bliss, Michael (1990) [1982]. The Discovery of Insulin (3rd ed.). University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8344-9. 
  • Jackson, A.Y. (1943). Banting as an Artist. Ryerson Press. 
  • Shaw, Margaret Mason (1976). Frederick Banting. Fitzhenry & Whiteside. ISBN 0-88902-229-1. 
  • Stevenson, Lloyd (1946). Sir Frederick Banting. Ryerson Press. 
  • Harris, Seale (1946). Banting's miracle; the story of the discoverer of insulin. Lippincott. 
  • Walters, Eric (2005). Elixir. Puffin Canada. ISBN 0-14-301641-5. 
  • Raju, T. N. (1998). "The Nobel Chronicles. 1923: Frederick G Banting (1891–1941), John J R Macleod (1876–1935)". Lancet. 352 (9138): 1482. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(05)61319-0. PMID 9808029. 
  • Hudson, R. P. (1979). "New light on the insulin controversy (Frederick G. Banting and J. J. R. Macleod)". Annals of Internal Medicine. 91 (2): 311. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-91-2-311. PMID 380438. 
  • Fletcher, K. (2007). "Sir Frederick Banting homestead sold to developer, family outraged". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 176 (12): 1691–92. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070613. PMC 1877854. PMID 17548378. 
  • Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A. (2005). "Frederick Banting – Nobel Laureate for Discovery of Insulin". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 80 (5): 576. doi:10.4065/80.5.576. PMID 15887423. 
  • MacLeod, J. B. A. (2006). "Frederick G. Banting: Giving Prospects for Life from the Past to the New Millennium". Archives of Surgery. 141 (7): 705–07. doi:10.1001/archsurg.141.7.705. PMID 16847245. 
  • Elliot, J. C. (2004). "Banting – a Nobel artist". The Medical Journal of Australia. 181 (11–12): 631. PMID 15588191. 
  • Todhunter, E. N. (1953). "Frederick G. Banting, November 14, 1891–February 22, 1941". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 29 (11): 1093. PMID 13108539. 
  • Les caprices du Nobel by William Rostène, ed. L'Harmattan (Paris), 2013 (in French) ISBN 978-2-343-01844-7

External links[

View of the Banting farm. Site preserved under the Ontario Heritage Act, with a plaque from the Federal Government recognizing Banting.
Banting and Marion Robertson on their wedding day

This is the list of Scottish clans with and without chiefs.

The crest badges used by members of Scottish clans are based upon armorial bearings recorded by the Lord Lyon King of Arms in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland. The blazon of the heraldic crest is given, and the heraldic motto with its translation into English. While all the crest badges of the clan names listed are recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, only about one half of these (about 140)[1] have a clan chief who is acknowledged by the Lord Lyon King of Arms as the rightful claimant of the undifferenced arms upon which the crest badges are based.

Scottish crest badges are heraldic badges used by members of Scottish clans to show their allegiance to a specific clan or clan chief. Even though they are commonly used by clan members, the heraldic crest and motto within the crest badge belong only to the clan chief - never the clan member. A Scottish clan member's crest badge is made up of a heraldic crest, encircled by a strap and buckle which contains a heraldic motto. In most cases, both crest and motto are derived from the crest and motto of the chief's coat of arms. Crest badges intended for wear as cap badges are commonly made of silver or some other metal such as pewter.In the case of armigers they wear their own crest within a plain circlet showing their own motto or slogan, not a belt and buckle showing the chief's. Women may wear a crest badge as a brooch to pin a sash of their clan tartan at the right shoulder of their gown or blouse. Female clan chiefs, chieftains, or the wives of clan chiefs normally wear a tartan sash pinned at their left shoulder.

Today, Scottish crest badges are commonly used by members of Scottish clans. However, much like clan tartans, Scottish crest badges do not have a long history, and owe much to Victorian eraromanticism, and the dress of the Highland Regiments.[2][3] Scottish crest badges have only been worn by clan members on the bonnet since the 19th century.[2]

  Highland and Island clans

  Lowland and Border clans

Clan nameCrest badgeBlazon of crest & motto within crest badge; War cry and Clan badgeClan chief;
and Clan seat, or historical seat
AbercrombyCrest: A falcon rising belled Proper.[4]

Motto:PETIT ALTA.[5]
[from Latin: "He seeks high deeds"].[4]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Abercrombie, Fife

AbernethyCrest: A raven Sable, beaked and membered Gules

Motto:SALUS PER CHRISTUM[from Latin: Salvation through Christ]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Abernethy, Perth and Kinross

AdairCrest: A man's head couped and bloody.[6]

[from French: "Loyal unto death"][6]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.The crest and motto are derived from the arms of Adair of Kinhilt.[6]
AdamCrest: A cross crosslet fitchée Gules surmounted by a sword in saltire Proper

Motto:CRUX MIHI GRATA QUIES[from Latin: The cross gives me welcome rest]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Blair Adam, estate in Kinross-shire

AgnewCrest: An eagle issuant and reguardant Proper.[7]

[from Latin: "By wisdom not force"][7]

Chief:Sir Crispin Agnew of Lochnaw, 11th Baronet

Seat:Lochnaw Castle, Dumfries and Galloway

AikenheadCrest: A demi-savage holding in his dexter hand three laurel slips fructed Proper

Motto:RUPTO ROBORE NATILatin: "We are born in a weak condition"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Aikenhead, Lanarkshire

AinslieCrest: Issuing out of a cap of maintenance a naked arm embowed grasping a scymitar all Proper

Motto:PRO PATRIA SAEPE PRO REGE SEMPER[from Latin: "For country often, for King always"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Dolphinstone Castle (ruin), Jedburgh[8]

AitonCrest: A hand pulling a rose Proper

Motto:DECERPTAE DABUNT ODORUM["Roses plucked will give sweet smell"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Ayton, Berwickshire

AllardiceCrest: A demi-savage holding in the dexter hand a scimitar all Proper


Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Allardice Castle, Kincardineshire

AndersonCrest: An oak tree Proper.{Lyon Court Records 1673/5: Book 1, folio 239 as recorded for James Anderson of Westerairdbreck and also grant by Lord Lyon 20 March 1992 book 73, folio 78: to David Alexander Richard Waterton-Anderson, a descendant of the original grantee}

Motto:STAND SURE as witnessed by armorial stones at Westerton, Banffshire dated 1664 and Botriphnie dated 1671; also by grant of Lord Lyon 20 March 1992 book 73, folio 78 to David Alexander Richard Waterton-Anderson.[9]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.This motto has been used by the leading house of Andersons from at least 1664 and adopted for use as a clan member's crest badge.[9]
AnstrutherCrest: Two arms in armour holding a pole-axe with both hands gauntleted Proper.[10]

[from Latin: "I would have perished had I not persisted"].[10]

Chief: Tobias Anstruther of that Ilk

Seat:Balcaskie House, Fife

In note No. 12 of Waverley, Sir Walter Scott, while discussing canting of arms in heraldry wrote, "The Periissem ni per-iissem of the Anstruthers is liable to a similar objection. One of that ancient race, finding that an antagonist, with whom he had fixed a friendly meeting, was determined to take the opportunity of assassinating him, prevented the hazard by dashing out his brains with a battle-axe. Two sturdy arms, brandishing such a weapon, form the usual crest of the family, with the above motto, Periissem ni per-iissem—I had died, unless I had gone through with it".[12]Note the crest used in the crest badge.
ArbuthnottCrest: A peacock's head couped at the neck Proper.[13]

Motto:LAUS DEO.[13]
[from Latin: "Praise God"].[13]

Chief:Keith Arbuthnott 17th Viscount of Arbuthnott

Seat: Arbuthnott tHouse, Arbuthnott, Aberdeenshire

ArmstrongCrest: An arm from the shoulder, armed Proper.[14]

[from Latin: "I remain unvanquished"].[14]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Gilnockie Tower, Dumfries and Galloway

ArnottChief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Arnott, Portmoak in Kinross-shire

ArthurCrest: Two laurel branches in orle Proper.[15]

Motto:FIDE ET OPERA.[15]
[from Latin: "By fidelity and labour"].[15]
Badge: Wild Myrtle or Fir Club Moss

Chief: John Alexander MacArthur of that Ilk

Seat: Castle Kennedy House, Castle Kennedy, Wigtownshire

AuchinleckCrest: An ear of rye Proper

Motto:PRETIOSUM QUOD UTILE["What is useful is valuable"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.Seat:Auchinleck
BaillieCrest: A boar's head erased Proper.[16]

[from Latin: "What is brighter than the stars?"].[16]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
BairdCrest: A gryphon's head erased Proper.[18]

[from Latin: "The Lord has done this"].[18]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
BalfourCrest: A dexter arm in armour erect the hand holding a baton in bend Gules tipped Argent

Motto: Fordward ["Forward"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.Seat:Burleigh Castle[19]
BannatyneCrest: A demi griffin, in his dexter paw a sword erect Proper.[20]

[from Latin: "Neither fast nor slow"].[20]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
BannermanCrest: A demi man in armour holding in his right hand a sword Proper.[22]

Motto:PRO PATRIA.[23]
[from Latin: "For my county"][24]

Chief: David Gordon Bannerman of Elsick, 15th BaronetThe ancestors of the Bannermans were hereditary banner-bearers to the kings of Scotland.[24]
BarclayCrest: (On a chapeau doubled Ermine) a hand holding a dagger Proper.[25]

[from Latin: "Either to do or die"].[25]

Chief: Peter Barclay of Towie Barclay and of that Ilk

Seat:Towie Barclay Castle, Aberdeenshire

BaxterCrest: A lion rampant guardant Sable

["Truth prevails"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
BellCrest: Viz. Azure, three bells, the crest, a hand holding a dagger, paleways proper, with the motto, "I beir the bel."

Motto: I BEIR THE BEL.[26]

Chief:in the process, armigerous clan.Seat:Middlebie
BelshesCrest: A greyhound's head couped Argent collared Azure

["Virtue shines unstained"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
BethuneCrest: An otter's head erased Argent.[27]

Motto:DE BONNAIRE.[28]
[from French: "Gracious"].[27]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
BeveridgeCrest: Out of a mural crown Or a demi beaver Proper

Motto: PERSEVERANDO ["By persevering"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Brucefield, estate in Fife

BinningChief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Barony of Binning, in the parish of Uphall, West Lothian

BissettCrest: The trunk of an oak tree sprouting afresh Proper

["That torn down re-grows"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.The chiefly line is thought to be Bisset of Lessendrum.
BlackadderChief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Old Tulliallan Castle, Kincardine, Fife

BlackstockChief:none, armigerous clan.
BlairCrest: A stag lodged Proper

Motto: AMO PROBOS ["I love the virtuous"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Blair, Ayrshire

BlaneCrest: The sword of Justice paleways Proper

Motto:PAX AUT BELLUM["Peace or war"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
BlythChief:none, armigerous clan.


BorthwickCrest: A moor's head couped Proper wreathed Argent and Sable.[29]

[from Latin: "He who leads"].[29]

Chief: John Hugh Borthwick of that Ilk, 24th Lord Borthwick

Seat:Borthwick Castle, Lothian

BoswellCrest: A falcon Proper, hooded Gules, jessed and belled Or

Motto:VRAYE FOI["True faith"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
BoydCrest: A dexter hand erect and pale having the outer fingers bowed inwards.[30]

[from Latin: "I trust"].[30]

Chief:Robin Jordan Boyd 8th Baron Kilmarnock

Seat:Dean Castle, Ayrshire

Alastair Boyd, 7th Baron Kilmarnock died 19 March 2009, but references continue to list him as Chief: see Burks, Standing council, and only House of Boyd aka Clan Boyd has updated information regarding their Chief Boyd clan web site
BoyleCrest: A double headed eagle displayed, parted per pale embattled Gules and Argent.[31]

[from Latin: "The Lord will provide"].[31]

Chief:Patrick Robin Archibald Boyle, 10th Earl of Glasgow

Seat:Kelburn Castle, North Ayrshire

BrisbaneCrest: A stork's head erased holding in her beak a serpent nowed Proper

["God will give repose"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Killincraig, Largs, North Ayrshire

BrodieCrest: A right hand holding a bunch of arrows all Proper.[33]

Motto: UNITE.[33]

Chief: Alexander Tristan Duff Brodie of Brodie

Seat:Brodie Castle, Morayshire

BrounCrest: A lion rampant, holding in the dexter paw a fleur de lis Or

Floreat magestas (Let majesty flourish) Motto:FLOREAT MAGESTAS
["Let majesty flourish"]

Chief: Sir Wayne Broun of Coultson, Bt.

Seat: Colstoun House, East Lothian

BruceCrest: A lion stantan Azure armed and langued Gules.[35]

[from Latin: "We have been"].[35]

Chief:Andrew Douglas Alexander Thomas Bruce, 11th Earl of Elgin

Seat:Broomhall Hall, Dunfermline

BuchanCrest: (upon a chapeau Gules furred Ermine) A sun shining upon a sunflower full blown Proper.[36]

[from Latin: "Not having followed mean pursuits"].[36]

Chief: David Buchan of Auchmacoy

Seat:Auchmacoy House, Aberdeenshire

BuchananCrest: A dexter hand holding up a ducal cap (Proper), tufted on the top with a rose Gules, within two laurel branches in orle (also Proper).[37]

[from Latin: "Hence the brighter honour"].[37]
Badge:billberry (blaeberry), oak, and birch[34]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.The last chief died in the 1682.[38]
ButterCrest: Two hands issuing from a cloud in dexter, extended to the sinister and drawing an arrow in a bow all Proper

Motto:DIRIGET DEUS["God directs"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Fascally, by Pitlochry, Perthshire

ByresCrest: A cock reguardant Proper

Motto:MARTE SUO TUTUS["Safe by his own exertions"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Byres Castle (ruin), Haddington, East Lothian

CairnsChief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Mid Calder, West Lothian

CalderChief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Cawdor Castle, Nairnshire

CaldwellChief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Caldwell, East Renfrewshire

CallenderChief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Callander, Stirlingshire

CameronCrest: A sheaf of five arrows points upwards Proper tied with a band Gules.[39]

[from Scottish Gaelic: "Unite"].[39]
Badge:crowberry, or oak[34]

Chief: Donald Angus Cameron of Lochiel

Seat:Achnacarry Castle, Fort William, Highlands

CampbellCrest: On a boar's head erased fessways erased Or, armed Argent, langued Gules.[40]

[from Latin: "Do not forget"].[40]
Badge:fir club moss, or wild myrtle (bog myrtle)[34]

Chief:Torquhil Ian Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll

Seat:Inveraray Castle, Argyll and Bute

Though abundant in Argyll, Bog Myrtle drops its leaves in winter.[41]
Campbell of BreadalbaneCrest: A boar's head erased Proper.[42]

Motto: FOLLOW ME.[43]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.Seat:Breadalbane
Campbell of CawdorCrest: A swan, Proper, crowned, Or.[44]

Motto: BE MINDFUL.[45]

Chief:Colin Campbell, 7th Earl Cawdor

Seat:Cawdor Castle, Nairnshire

Campbell of PossilCrest: A Boar's head erect, erased Or armed and langued Azure.[46][47][48]

Motto: FAC ET SPERA.[48]
[from Latin: "Do and Hope"][46]

CarmichaelCrest: A dexter hand and arm in pale armed and holding a broken spear Proper.[49]

[from French: "Always ready"].[49]

Chief: Richard Carmichael of Carmichael

Seat:Carmichael, South Lanarkshire

CarnegieCrest: A thunderbolt Proper, winged Or.[50]

Motto: DRED GOD.[50]

Chief:David Carnegie, 4th Duke of Fife

Seat:Elsick House, Stonehaven, Kincardineshire

CarruthersCrest: A seraphim volant Proper[51][52]

["Ready and faithful"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
CathcartCrest: A dexter hand couped above the wrist and erect Proper, grasping a crescent Argent.[53]

Motto: I HOPE TO SPEED.[53]

Chief:Charles Alan Andrew Cathcart, 7th Earl Cathcart

Seat:Gateley Hall

ChalmersCrest: The head and neck of a lion Sable langued Gules


Chief:none, armigerous clan.
CharterisCrest: A dexter hand holding up a dagger paleways Proper.[54]


Chief:James Charteris, 13th Earl of Wemyss and 9th Earl of March

Seat: Gosford House, East Lothian

ChattanCrest: A cat salient Proper.[55]

Badge: wild whortleberry[34]

Captain: Malcolm K. MacKintosh of Clan Chattan
CheyneCrest: A cross pattée fitchée Argent

["Patience conquers"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Esslemont, Aberdeenshire

ChisholmCrest: A dexter hand holding a dagger erect Proper, the point thereof transfixing a boar's head erased Or.[56]

Motto:FEROS FERIO.[56]
[from Latin: "I am fierce with the fierce"].[56]Badge:fern[34]

Chief: Hamish Chisholm of Chisholm
ClellandCrest: A falcon upon a glove sinister Proper


Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat:Cleland, North Lanarkshire

See also: 18th century Clevland family of Tapley, North Devon.[57]
ClephaneCrest: A hand holding a helmet Proper

Motto:UT SIM PARATIOR["That I may be the more ready"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: Carslogie, Fife

CochraneCrest: A horse passant Argent[58]

["By valour and exertion"].[58]

Chief: Iain Alexander Douglas Blair Cochrane, 15th Earl of Dundonald, 6th Marquess of Maranhão

Seat:Lochnell Castle, Argyllshire

CockburnCrest: A cock crowing Proper.[59]

[from Latin: "He rouses us with song"].[59]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
ColquhounCrest: A hart's head couped Gules, attired Argent.[61]

Motto:SI JE PUIS.[61]
[from French: "If i can"].[61]
Badge:hazel,[34] or dogberry[62]

Chief: Sir Malcolm Rory Colquhoun of Luss, 9th Baronet

Seat:Rossdhu Mansion, Argyll & Bute

ColvilleCrest: A hind's head couped at the neck Argent.[63]

[from French: "I cannot forget"].[63]

Chief:Charles Mark Townshend Colville, 5th Viscount Colville of Culross
CongiltonCrest: A bee Proper

Motto:MAGNA IN PARVO["Much in little"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
CraigCrest: A chevalier on horseback in full charge grasping a broken lance in bend Proper.[64]

[from Latin: "Live for God and you shall have life"].[64]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.The last chief was Thomas Craig of Riccarton who died on 13 March 1823[66]Seat:Riccarton
CranstounCrest: A crane Proper dormant holding a stone in her claw.[67]


Chief: David Cranston of that Ilk and Corehouse
CrawfordCrest: A stag's head erased Gules, between the attires a cross crosslet fitchée Sable.[68]

[from Latin: "I will give you safety though strength"].[68]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
CrichtonCrest: A dragon spouting out fire Proper.[69]

Motto: GOD SEND GRACE.[70]

Chief: David Maitland Makgill Crichton of that Ilk

Seat:Monzie Castle, Crieff

CrosbieCrest: Out of a mount the trunk of a tree sprouting out new branches all Proper

Motto:RESURGAM["I shall rise again"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
CummingCrest: A lion rampant Or, in his dexter paw a dagger Proper.[71]

Motto: COURAGE.[71]
Badge:cumin plant[34]

Chief: Sir Alexander Penrose Gordon Cumming of Altyre, 7th Bt.

Seat: Altyre House, Morayshire

Cumin plant is not even native to Britain. The 19th century writer James Logan attributed the clan with this plant. The clan's association with this badge was questioned by at least one other 19th century writer.[72]
CunninghamCrest: A unicorn's head couped Argent, armed Or.[73]

Motto: OVER FORK OVER.[73]

Chief: Sir John Christopher Foggo Montgomery Cunninghame of Kilmaurs, Baronet of Corsehill[74]
DalmahoyCrest: A hand brandishing a sword aloft Proper

Motto:ABSQZ ["absque"], or METU ["Without fear"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.

Seat: barony of Dalmahoy, Midlothian

DalrympleCrest: A rock Proper.[75]

Motto: FIRM.[76]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.Seat:Dalrymple
DalzielCrest: A dagger paleways Azure, hilted and pommelled Or.[77]

Motto: I DARE.[78]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.Seat:Dalziel
DarrochCrest: On a chapeau Gules furred miniver a demi-Negro, in his dexter hand a dagger Proper.[79]

Motto: BE WATCHFULL.[80]

Chief: Duncan Darroch of Gourock
DavidsonCrest: A stag's head erased Proper.[81]

["Wisely if sincerely"].[81]
Badge:boxwood, or red whortleberry[34]

Chief: Alister Davidson of Davidston
DeMartinoCrest: A dexter arm in pale Proper, clothed Gules, (issuing out of the Wreath) and holding an antique shield Sable charged with a mullet Or

Motto:ADVERSA VURTUTE REPELLO["I repel adversity with fortitude"]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.
DewarCrest: Issuant from a crest coronet Or of four (three visible) strawberry leaves, a dexter arm vambraced, brandishing a sword Proper, hilted and pommelled Or.[citation needed]

[from Latin: "What would one not do for his country"].[83]

Chief: Michael Kenneth Dewar of that Ilk and Vogrie
Donnachaidh aka Clan Duncan aka Clan RobertsonCrest: A dexter hand holding up an imperial crown Proper.[84]

[from Latin: "Glory is the reward of valour"].[84]
Badge:bracken,[34] or fern[62]

Chief: Alexander Robertson of Struan.The Celtic Magazine of 1884 states that this badge (fern), compared to fine leaved heath, is the older badge.[62]
DouglasCrest: On a chapeau Gules furred Ermine, a salamander Vert encircled with flames of fire Proper.[85]

[from French: "Never behind"].[85]

Chief:none, armigerous clan.The Douglas-Hamiltons are heirs to the chiefship, however the Lord Lyon requires them to assume the single name Douglas for them to be granted the title of chief.[86]
DrummondCrest: On a crest coronet Or, a goshhawk wings displayed Proper, armed and belled Or, jessed Gules.[87]

[from Latin: "Honour crowns virtue"].[87]
Badge:holly,[34] or Wild thyme[62]

Chief: John Eric Drummond, 18th Earl of Perth
DunbarCrest: A horse's head Argent, bridled and reined Gules.[88]

Motto:IN PROMPTU.[88]
["In readiness"].[88]

Chief: Sir James Dunbar of Mochrum, 14th Bt.

Seat:Mochrum Castle, Dumfries and Galloway


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